Monthly Archives: March 2013

Teacher training in the 19th century

Until school boards were established by the Education Act 1870, the state did not make any provision for the education of working-class children.

What little education they received had to be paid for by their parents, although there were a few free places reserved for them in the grammar schools at Leek, Newchapel, Stafford, Stone and Uttoxeter.

By the end of the 17th century, Newcastle-under-Lyme had a grammar school, where 39 boys were educated free of charge. There was also a dame school, which was financed by the town council. The school had free places for up to 20 girls.

Joseph_Lancaster_by_John_Hazlitt

Joseph Lancaster

In 1808, nonconformist educationalist Joseph Lancaster founded the British and Foreign Schools Society to give financial help to free churches who were building day schools at home and missionary schools overseas.

Fearing that the British Schools would monopolise elementary education in the new industrial towns, the Church of England set up the National Society for the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church throughout England and Wales.

During 1814, the National Society opened its first school in North Staffordshire at Chesterton.

The first British School in The Potteries was erected in Burslem by the Wesleyans. The parish church, St. John’s, opened a National School in 1817 and by 1822 the Roman Catholic Church had built a school at Cobridge.

Many teachers were not well educated or well trained. Pupils who wanted to become teachers stayed at school until their early teens and became apprentice teachers. Called monitors, the apprentices were supervised by the headteacher and allowed to teach younger pupils. After a few years, monitors who had successfully completed their training and could maintain discipline were employed as assistant teachers.

During 1846, the government made regulations governing teacher training. Under these rules, boys and girls who had stayed at school until they were 13 could be appointed pupil teachers.

Pupil teachers were apprenticed to the headteacher for five years. At the end of each year, they were examined by the school inspectors. When their apprenticeship ended, pupil teachers took the Queen’s Scholarship examination.

Those who passed with the highest marks were given a grant which enabled them to go to a teacher training college and become fully qualified certificated teachers. Other pupil teachers who passed the examination were offered employment as uncertificated assistant teachers. Only certificated teachers could obtain headships. Uncertificated teachers remained assistant teachers throughout their careers. Many secured positions at the school where they had been educated and taught there until they retired.

Copyright Betty Cooper – The Phoenix Trust 2013

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Education in The Potteries during the 1920s

Newcastle High School

During the early 1920s, the type of school a child attended depended on its parents’ social status.

Middle-class children, whose parents could afford to pay school fees, were sent to secondary schools like Newcastle High School, the Orme Girls’ School and Hanley High School where they received an academic education.

Except for a few scholarship boys and girls attending secondary schools, working-class children went to elementary schools and left to start work at 14.

When the First World War ended in 1918, the Labour Party demanded educational reform and called on the government to give all children a secondary education.

In 1926, the Hadow Report recommended replacing elementary schools with primary schools and selected entry secondary schools – grammar and secondary modern. The report was accepted by the government and local education authorities in North Staffordshire made plans to reorganise their schools.

Stoke-on-Trent’s three secondary schools, Hanley High School, Longton High School and Tunstall High School for Girls became grammar schools. Parents whose children attended these schools still had to pay school fees although a few free places were given to working-class children who had passed the eleven plus.

Reorganisation started in Tunstall during 1929. Tunstall High School for Girls left the Jubilee Building and moved into purpose-built premises at Brownhills. Existing school buildings in Forster Street, High Street and Summerbank Road were modernised or enlarged. Three secondary modern schools were created and Forster Street, where new classrooms and a hall were constructed, became a primary school.

By 1932 all the local authority’s schools in The Potteries had been reorganised. Influenced by the public schools, the grammar schools and the secondary modern schools organised their pupils into houses. House points were awarded for pupils’ academic and sporting achievements. School societies were encouraged and senior pupils who were made prefects helped to maintain discipline.

Although class teaching, where a teacher had a class for a year and taught every subject, was retained in primary schools, it was replaced in secondary modern schools by subject teaching. New teachers had to specialise in one or two subjects, and those who had taught in the elementary schools were given in-service training to help them adapt to the change.

Copyright Betty Cooper – The Phoenix Trust 2013

Photograph Copyright The Phoenix Trust 2012

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