Category Archives: History and Heritage

Spotlight on Hanley – The Grand Theatre

FRANK MATCHAM WHO DESIGNED HANLEY’S GRAND THEATRE

Designed by Frank Matcham, the Grand Theatre of Varieties in Trinity Street, Hanley was built for two brothers, impresarios Charles and George Elphinstone who owned the Theatre Royal in Pall Mall, Hanley and Batty’s Circus.

Born in Devon during 1854, Frank was educated at Babbacombe School, Torquay. He became an architect and went to live in London where he worked for Jethro Robinson who designed and built theatres. Robinson died suddenly in 1874 while he was erecting the Elephant and Castle Theatre in south London. Although only 24 years old, Frank took over Robinson’s practice and finished building the theatre.

Rapidly establishing himself as one of the country’s leading architects, Frank designed over 100 theatres and music halls, including the London Palladium and the Coliseum, before his death in 1920.

Impresarios employed him to build theatres in towns and cities throughout the United Kingdom. He designed the King’s Theatre, Glasgow; the new Theatre Royal, Portsmouth and the Gaiety Theatre at Douglas on the Isle of Man. In the north-west, he built the Olympia Theatre. Liverpool and the Grand Theatre in Blackpool where he designed the Tower Ballroom and Circus.

The Elphinstone brothers commissioned Frank to increase seating capacity at the Theatre Royal, to build the Empire Theatre in Commerce Street, Longton and to design the Grand Theatre of Varieties.

An ornamental Renaissance-style theatre with a dome over its main entrance, the Grand cost over £25,000 and part of the auditorium could be converted into a circus arena by extending the stage.

Officially called “The Hanley Grand Theatre of Varieties and Circus” the new theatre opened on August 22nd, 1898 with a variety show starring Professor John Higgins, the world’s champion jumper. Billed as “the human kangaroo”, Higgins astonished a packed house by jumping over 30 chairs placed 11ft apart. The audience held its breath as he leapt over two horses, and cheered when he successfully jumped over a four-wheeled cab.

A popular venue, the Grand attracted world-famous music hall and variety artistes including George Robey, Vesta Tilley, Albert Chevalier and “The Potteries’ very own – the one and only” Gertie Gitana.

Gertrude Astbury, who took the stage name Gertie Gitana, was the daughter of pottery worker William Astbury and his wife Lavinia. Born at 7 Shirley Street, Longport in 1888, Gertie began her theatrical career as a male impersonator with Thomlinson’s Royal Gypsie Choir when she was four years old. A child prodigy, she made her music hall debut as Little Gitana at the Tivoli in Barrow-in-Furness. Gertie acquired a repertoire of popular songs that included “Nellie Dean”, “When the Harvest Moon is Shining” and “Sweet Caroline”, and went on tour captivating music hall audiences everywhere.

Like most variety theatres, the Grand showed newsreels between performances, and audiences saw Gladstone’s funeral, Queen Victoria’s visit to Ireland and British troops in action during the Boer War.

Travelling showmen brought “moving pictures” to fairs. The films they showed were very popular. During 1909, entrepreneur George Barber opened a cinema in Tunstall. Shortly afterwards four cinemas were opened in Newcastle-under-Lyme. In 1910, the Elphinstone brothers built the Empire Electric Theatre in Hanley, a cinema that could seat more than 900 people.

Cinemas provided cheap entertainment for working-class families. Even the most impoverished families could afford to spend a few pence watching a silent film and have enough money left to buy fish and chips on the way home. After the First World War, people started going to the cinema two or three times a week.

Audiences drifted away from music halls and variety theatres. When the Grand Theatre closed in 1932, the building became a cinema. The first film that was shown there was “Sally in our Alley” starring Gracie Fields.

Comment: The Future of Local Museums

Faced with cuts in local government expenditure local museums in towns and cities throughout the country are facing closure.

Spotlight on North Staffordshire and The Potteries has no hesitation in saying that Museums and Art Galleries ensure the survival of our cultural heritage. They are too important to be used as political footballs by cost-cutting councillors. A nation that forgets its cultural heritage is a nation without a future.

Theft and Homicide in Late Anglo-Saxon Law 

In a post on Medievalists.net, T. B. Lambert looks at Theft, Homicide and Crime in late Anglo-Saxon Law.

Lambert says:

“It is a startling but infrequently remarked upon fact that for five centuries English law, which prescribed the sternest penalties for theft, contained only a relatively minor royal fine for homicide. Whereas the first clear statement that the death penalty applied to thieves is found in the late seventh-century West Saxon laws of Ine, we have no equivalent statement with respect to homicide before the text known as Glanvill, composed in the late 1180s…”

To read more visit Theft, Homicide and Crime in Late Anglo-Saxon Law – Medievalists.net

Capital and Corporal Punishment in Anglo-Saxon England

A post on Medievalists.net looks at archaeological evidence challenging the long-standing belief held by legal historians that in Anglo-Saxon times criminals were executed for major criminal offences or faced punishments such as amputations for lesser crimes.

To learn more about crime and punishment in Anglo-Saxon England visit Capital and Corporal Punishment may have been rare in Anglo-Saxon England, researcher suggests – Medievalists.net

Focus on Apedale: The Apedale Railway

At the moment, the Spotlight Team is fascinated by model railways. It is re-creating a Mainline layout which Heritage Associates photographed for Palitoy in the 1970s and would like to know more about the models shown in Apedale Railway’s photograph. Please contact the team at spotlightstoke@talktalk.net if you can give it more information.

Focus on Middleport: Middleport Matters Highlights 2018

Winter was hard in the Middle Ages 

A post by Sandra Alvarez on the Medievalists.net describes a Russian experiment to discover what life was like in the Middle Ages.

In this extract from her post, Sandra introduces her readers to the experiment. 

“In 2013, a medieval reenactment group set out to see what it would be like to survive a Russian winter in the Middle Ages. They selected one of their members, Pavel Sapozhnikov, to live on a farmstead, with only ninth century tools, clothing and shelter for six months as part of a project entitled, Alone in the Past.

“Once a day, Pavel would speak for half an hour into a camera to recount his day and share his experiences. The rest of the time, he was completely alone, with a monthly check-in to ensure he was still alive. His experiment provided a first-hand glimpse of the struggles people faced surviving the winter in the Middle Ages.”

To read Sandra’s post and learn more about village life in the Middle Ages visit Surviving Winter in the Middle Ages – Medievalists.net

Making space for the Wedding Present at Gladstone

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