Tag Archives: John Nash Peake

A BOOK ABOUT TUNSTALL MARKET

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TUNSTALL INDOOR MARKET CELEBRATES ITS 160th ANNIVERSARY THIS YEAR

Tunstall’s indoor market was opened in 1858. To celebrate the 160th anniversary of its opening, historical geographer, Betty Cooper and international heritage lawyer, David Martin are writing a book about the market.

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

Tunstall’s historic Market Hall is one of the few remaining Victorian covered markets in the country.

The covered market cost £7,651 13s 1d. It was designed by Wolverhampton based architect George Thomas Robinson, who created Burslem’s old town hall. The market hall was opened by the chief bailiff, Thomas Peake on the 2 December 1858. Trading commenced there on the 4 December 1858 and customers could buy meat and fish, poultry and game, fruit and vegetables, groceries and dairy produce, clothing and manufactured goods.

In the early 1880s, one-third of the covered market, including its main entrance in High Street, was demolished to make way for a new town hall.

Built in the free Renaissance style, the town hall was designed by North Staffordshire’s leading architect, Absalom Reade Wood.

While the town hall was being constructed, Wood regenerated the remaining part of the market hall giving it a new glazed roof. New stalls were erected. The floor was relaid and the building was redecorated. Tunstall’s chief bailiff, John Nash Peake, opened the new town hall on the 29 October 1885. To celebrate its opening, a luncheon was held in the town hall. Afterwards, the band of the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards and the members of Burslem Prize Choir gave a Promenade Concert in the covered market. In the evening a football match took place in Phoenix Park and the day ended with a grand ball in the market hall.

BETTY AND DAVID NEED YOUR HELP

Many people who shop in the market today must remember the covered market before it closed for regeneration in the 1990s and the temporary market hall that was erected in Woodland Street.

If you were a child in the 1970s, 80s and 90s, your mother could have taken you to the market on Saturdays when she did the weekend shopping. You may even have had a part-time job working on one of the stalls when you were at school or college.

If you have memories or photographs of the market which you would like to share with Betty and David please contact them at daymar727@talktalk.net

Tunstall’s Town Hall and Market

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Tunstall Town Hall

Tunstall’s heritage market was 200 years old on September 20, 2017.

In 1816, Tunstall’s chief constable, pottery manufacturer John Henry Clive, founded a company to build a Magistrates’ Courthouse and create a Market Place.

The company leased three-quarters of an acre of sloping ground called Stoney Croft from Walter Sneyd, the Lord of the Manor. It built a courthouse and laid out a market place, which later became Tower Square, on the site.

A two-storey stone building, the courthouse had a fire station with two fire engines and a market hall on the ground floor where eggs, butter, milk and cheese were sold when the market opened. The building faced eastwards. It was erected about halfway up the slope. Steps led from the lower part of the Market Place, where stalls were set up on market day, to the market hall’s main entrance.

Beneath the market hall was the town lock up – a dark, foul-smelling dungeon where prisoners were held while awaiting trial. The stocks stood at the foot of the steps leading to the market hall. Six hours in the stocks or a fine of five shillings was the usual penalty for being drunk and disorderly.

The company placed an advertisement in the Staffordshire Advertiser that was published on September 13, 1817, which read: “Notice is hereby given that henceforward a market will be held at Tunstall, in the Potteries, weekly on Saturdays in front of the Court-House. The first to be on Saturday, 20 September. Stalls and standings free.”

Tunstall Market was both a retail market and a wholesale market. Retailers sold fruit and vegetables, meat, fish, poultry and salt. Horse-drawn waggons brought dairy produce, fruit and vegetables to the wholesale market which attracted retailers from Burslem, Hanley, Stoke, Longton and Fenton.

An Act of Parliament passed in 1840 created the Tunstall Market Company to manage the market. In 1847, the company sold the market for £6,500 to the town’s Improvement Commissioners. Shortly afterwards, the commissioners allowed dealers to sell hay and straw there. In 1855, the Improvement Commissioners were replaced by a Board of Health. The Board of Health managed the market until 1894 when Boards of Health were abolished and Urban District Councils were created to replace them. Tunstall Urban District Council ran the market until 1910 when the “six towns amalgamated” to form the County Borough of Stoke-on-Trent.

A New Market Hall

In 1856, the Board of Health decided to build a new market hall and turn the courthouse into a town hall. George Thomas Robinson, the architect who designed Burslem’s Old Town Hall, was commissioned to transform the courthouse into a town hall and to build a new market hall.

Robinson enlarged the courthouse giving it a circular front where the steps had been. He redesigned the courtroom and turned the market hall into a boardroom and offices for the Board of Health.

Constructed on a half acre site opposite the Market Place in High Street, the new Market Hall cost £7,651.

The Market Hall was opened by Thomas Peake, the Chief Bailiff and Chairman of the Board of Health, on December 2, 1858. In the evening a concert was held in the Market Hall. At 9.00 pm there was a firework display in the Market Place which was followed by a ball in the Market Hall.

Trading commenced there two days later on December 4, 1858, when the retail market which sold:

  • Dairy produce
  • Fruit and vegetables
  • Meat, fish, poultry, game and rabbits
  • Manufactured goods and household utensils

left the Market Place and moved into the building.

The wholesale market that sold:

  • Fruit and vegetables
  • Fruit trees and bushes
  • Garden plants, seeds and shrubs
  • Hay and straw

remained in the Market Place which later became known as Market Square.

A New Town Hall

Although the courthouse had been enlarged and made into a town hall, the building was too small to meet the administrative needs of an expanding industrial town.

At the beginning of the 1880s, the front portion of the Market Hall and the main entrance in High Street, which had been built on the spring line that marks the geological boundary between Etruria Marl and the Blackband series of coal and ironstone measures, was collapsing due to subsidence. The Board of Health decided to reduce the size of the Market Hall by a third. The front part of the building was demolished and a new town hall was erected on the site. Designed by Absalom Reade Wood who was one of North Staffordshire’s leading architects, the town hall is a free “Renaissance Style” building that stands on a rusticated stone base. It was opened by John Nash Peake, the Chief Bailiff and Chairman of the Board of Health, on October 29, 1885.

While the town hall was being built, the remaining two-thirds of the Market Hall was being modernised. The building was reroofed, new gas lighting was installed, the floor was relaid and permanent stalls were erected.

The Wholesale Market in the 20th Century

The wholesale market, which closed before the end of the 19th century, was re-established in the Market Square in 1901. Shortly afterwards, a small retail market selling fish and rabbits was opened in the square. These markets declined after the First World War (1914-18). The retail market in the Market Hall became Tunstall’s primary market, although as late as the 1930s there were still a few stalls in the square selling fish and rabbits.

When children approached his stall one of the traders who sold rabbits started singing these words to the tune of the well-known music hall song “If you want to know the time ask a policeman”:

“Does your mother want a rabbit?

“Sell you one for sixpence.

“Skin you one for ninepence.”

The Market Hall after 1940

Before the Second World War (1939-45), the Market Hall was open on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In February 1940, the market was opened for the sale of meat on Fridays. During 1941, some of the stalls were taken down and a civic restaurant was established in the Market Hall.

After the war, market days were Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays.

During the 1950s and 60s, families could do their weekly shopping in the market where there were stalls that sold:

  • Bread and cakes
  • Eggs, butter, cheese, margarine and milk
  • First and Second World War memorabilia and military medals
  • Fruit and Vegetables
  • Groceries
  • Handbags and purses
  • Hardware and household utensils
  • Ladies and children’s clothing
  • Meat and poultry, black pudding, boiled ham, brawn, corned beef, Cornish pasties, home-cured bacon, pork pies, sausages, savoury ducks and tripe
  • Pet food, cages for budgerigars and hampsters, fish tanks and goldfish bowls
  • Pottery
  • Oatcakes and Pikelets
  • Shoes and handbags
  • Second-hand books and magazines
  • Toys and games
  • Watches and jewellery

In 1992, the City Council’s architects and surveyors discovered that the Market Hall and the town hall were unsafe. The structures supporting the Market Hall’s roof were unstable and its east gable wall was likely to collapse. A temporary market was erected in Woodland Street. Both the town hall and the Market Hall were closed. Although the town hall is still closed, the Market Hall was regenerated and reopened at the beginning of the 21st century.

© Betty Cooper and David Martin (2017)

Absalom Reade Wood (1851-1922)

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TUNSTALL TOWN HALL

Absalom Reade Wood, who was born in Burslem during 1851, became one of North Staffordshire’s leading architects.

Absalom was educated at the Wesleyan Day School in Burslem. On leaving school he became articled to Hanley architect Robert Scrivener who designed the Mechanics Institution in Pall Mall and the Queen’s Hotel in Albion Street, which later became the town hall.

Absalom was a  small man with a “comfortable, neat figure and a short beard”. He had a warm, friendly personality that gave him an optimistic outlook on life.

A keen sportsman, Absalom played cricket, tennis and golf. He also enjoyed cycling and swimming. 

After qualifying as an architect, Absalom established his own practice in Tunstall.

During 1875 he became the town’s part-time surveyor. Working closely with John Nash Peake and the town clerk Arthur Llewellyn, he regenerated Tunstall’s covered market hall and created the town’s Victorian Civic Centre that contained the town hall, the Victoria Institute, a fire station, a swimming pool, a drill hall and a recreation ground.

His first commission to design a pottery factory came from his childhood friend Edmund Leigh for whom he built the Middleport Pottery (Burgess, Dorling & Leigh) on the banks of the Trent and Mersey Canal. The works, which possessed seven bottle ovens, opened in 1889 and shortly afterwards he designed a factory for Enoch Wedgwood at Brownhills.

Burslem School Board employed him to design Longport Elementary Schools, Jackfield Infants’ School, Park Road Elementary Schools and the Central School (now Burslem Enterprise Centre) in Moorland Road.

Absalom married Mary Holdcroft, whose father, William, was a pottery manufacturer. The couple had five children – two boys and three girls.

Absalom and Mary were Methodists. The family worshipped at Hill Top Methodist Church in Burslem which Absalom regenerated in 1889 and at Longport Methodist Church which he designed.

His other churches include St. Andrew’s at Port Hill and the United Reformed Church in Moorland Road, Burslem which has a magnificent stained glass window depicting the Sermon on the Mount that shows Christ surrounded by people from all walks of life.

Originally called the Woodhall Memorial Congregational Church, the United Reformed Church was constructed of red brick and red Hollington Stone. It was erected in memory of William Woodhall who played a significant role in founding the Wedgwood Institute.

Built to replace an earlier Congregational Church in Queen Street, the church’s front elevation contains a bronze relief of Woodhall set in a carved moulded panel.

Closely linked with the old Queen Street church and the new church in Moorland Road was Wycliffe Hall in Wycliffe Street. Opened in 1885, the hall, designed by Absalom, housed the church’s Sunday School and Burslem High School for Girls.

Absalom’s best-known building in Burslem is the School of Art in Queen Street. Situated opposite the Wedgwood Institute, the school which cost £8,500 was opened in 1907. Of classic design with large north facing windows that lighted the first-floor classrooms, the school was constructed of red brick with tawny terracotta facings. A circular terracotta porch supported by columns led into the building whose classrooms and studios surrounded a central hall which had a balcony with a wrought iron balustrade.

One of the school’s most famous students was pottery designer Clarice Cliff who attended classes there in the 1920s.

Born at Meir Street, Tunstall in 1889, Clarice was educated at High Street School,  Summerbank Road School and Tunstall Art School which was housed in the Victoria Institute – all buildings which had been designed by Absalom.

During his long life, Absalom designed numerous churches, civic buildings, factories and houses throughout The Potteries.

He died peacefully at his home Hillcrest in Woodland Avenue, Wolstanton on December 21st, 1922.

(Copyright Betty Cooper – The Phoenix Trust 2010)