Tag Archives: The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent

Tunstall in the 1830s

Between 1811 and 1831, the population of Tunstall rose from 1,677 to 3,673.

By the end of the 1820s, Tunstall was a prosperous industrial town with a weekly market where fruit and vegetables, meat and fish, household goods and dairy produce were sold.

At the beginning of the 19th century, there were only three factories making pottery in Tunstall. By the end of the 1830s, there were seventeen. Three manufactured both china and earthenware, twelve made earthenware and two produced hand-painted china figures.

Since the middle of the 18th century, Staffordshire blue brick and tiles were made in Tunstall. In the 1830s, there were five firms manufacturing bricks and tiles. The largest brick and tile maker was Thomas Peake whose works in Watergate Street also made ornamental plant holders and garden furniture. 

Although the Methodist New Connexion, the Primitive Methodists and the Wesleyan Methodists had churches in the town, members of the Church of England had to travel to Wolstanton to worship in the parish church, St. Margaret’s, or go to Newchapel to attend services at a chapel of ease.

There were Sunday Schools attached to all the Methodist Churches.

During the week, an infants’ school was held by the Primitive Methodists in a three-storey building in Calver Street. Writing about the school, John Ward in his book The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, published in 1843, called it a “laudable and interesting institution” whose aim was:

To rescue children between the ages of two and six years, from the influence of bad example, and from vagrant habits; to imbue their minds with religious and moral sentiments, by imparting instruction adapted to their infant capacities, and to diminish the burden and care of their parents . . .

The parents of each child paid two pence a week for its education.

From 1831, the Wesleyan Methodists held evening classes where men and women were taught to read the bible. In 1838, the Wesleyans established an elementary school for boys and an elementary school for girls.

During 1829, the Church of England launched a public appeal to build Christ Church.

The appeal raised £1,000, and the government gave £3,000 towards the cost of the building. A site, where Furlong Road joins High Street, was purchased from Ralph Sneyd, the Lord of the Manor, for £400.

London-based architect, Francis Bedford was employed to design the church.

Built of Chell-Hollington stone, Christ Church was an Elizabethan style building. It was “an elegant structure with a neat tower surmounted by a spire at the west end”. The church was consecrated by Henry Ryder, the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, on August 14th, 1832.

Christ Church could accommodate 1,000 worshippers. It had a three-decker pulpit, and there were galleries on the north, south and west side of the nave.

Focus on Burslem: John Ward (1781-1871)

St. Paul's Church, Burslem (640x409)John Ward, the author of “The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent” published in 1843, was born at Slawston in Leicestershire on June 22nd, 1781.

John who became one of North Staffordshire’s leading lawyers served his articles with an attorney in Cheadle.

Qualifying in 1808, he moved to Burslem and set up his own practice.

At the time, Britain and her allies were at war with France. Napoleon’s army had defeated the Prussians. English troops, commanded by the Duke of Wellington, were fighting a rearguard action in Portugal and John joined the Longport Volunteers, a unit formed to help defend The Potteries if the French invaded.

In 1811, John married Anne Rice from Ashby-de-la-Zouch. They had one son, William, who died of pleurisy in 1847.

An able lawyer, he quickly established an extensive practice and acted for leading industrialists and large landowners including Admiral Smith Child and his grandson Sir Smith Child. Like all successful lawyers, John made enemies. Burslem pottery manufacturer Enoch Wood accused him of professional misconduct. John sued for defamation and Wood was ordered to pay him £100 damages.

A devout Christian, John was churchwarden at St. Paul’s in Dalehall, a church he helped to build. Erected on land given by William Adams, the church was consecrated by Henry Ryder, the Bishop of Lichfield, on January 19th, 1831. Costing £2,000 the medieval Perpendicular style Hollington stone building was designed by London architect Lewis Vulliamy who also built Christ Church, Cobridge.

The Reform Act 1832 made Stoke-upon-Trent a Parliamentary Borough giving it two Members of Parliament. Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Longton and Fenton were included in the constituency.

In 1837, local historian Simeon Shaw, using John’s archives, began writing “The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent” which he hoped to publish in monthly instalments.

Rewritten and edited by John, the first eight parts were printed under Shaw’s name. A financial dispute arose between Shaw and his publishers. They refused to publish any more instalments until John agreed to take over the series and complete the work. He wrote the last 12 parts, and all the instalments were made into a book called “The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent”. John was acknowledged as the author, but all profits from its sales were given to Shaw.

Politically a Conservative, John was one of Burslem’s improvement commissioners who were responsible for providing street lighting and policing. The town’s market trustees made him their clerk. He arranged for them to buy land in the town centre where they erected a meat market. Opened on October 1st, 1836 the market hall was a Romanesque-style stone building designed by architect Samuel Ledward.

Large-scale riots took place in Staffordshire during August 1842. Armed troops were used to maintain law and order. Men and women who had been arrested were taken to Stafford Gaol. The Crown employed John to help prosecute them. They were tried by Special Commissioners, who were High Court judges, sitting at Stafford.

John remained in practice until he died at his home, Furlong House in Burslem, on June 3rd, 1870. He was 89 years old. His funeral took place at St. Paul’s, Dalehall and he was buried in the churchyard.

Copyright Betty Cooper – The Phoenix Trust, September 2010