Tag Archives: Tunstall

Focus on Tunstall: John Nash Peake

Nash Peake Street (Tunstall)

Nash Peake Street in Tunstall is named after John Nash Peake who was one of the town’s most flamboyant characters.

Born in Tunstall on the 13th April 1837, John was the son of Thomas Peake the owner of Tunstall Tileries in Watergate Street who was Tunstall’s Chief Bailiff from 1858 to 1861.

Educated in Bloomsbury, John showed remarkable artistic ability. He became a student at the Royal Academy under Millais.

When he was only 18, one of John’s paintings called “Alpine Monks Restoring a Traveller” was put in an exhibition at Burlington House. A year later, he exhibited “The Last Hours of the Condemned” a painting that portrayed a soldier awaiting execution.

Although he could have remained in London and become a professional artist, John returned to Tunstall in the late 1850s, and joined his father’s firm which manufactured bricks, tiles, water pipes and ornamental garden pottery. When Thomas died, John inherited the business. He doubled its size and made it one of the largest tileries in the world with 35 ovens and kilns producing over 250,000 roof tiles a week.

A man who cared about Tunstall and the welfare of its people, John had a forceful personality, a keen intellect and a commanding presence. He was eloquent, versatile and persevering.

Politically a Liberal, John became a member of Tunstall’s Board of Health in 1869. A staunch supporter of the Church of England and the Protestant Reformation, he opposed the growing influence of Newmanism and the introduction of Anglo-Catholic dogma and rites into Potteries churches.

Working closely with the Board of Health’s clerk, solicitor Arthur Llewellyn, and its architect Absalom Reade Wood, he regenerated the market hall and gave Tunstall a late Victorian Civic Centre which included a town hall and the Jubilee Buildings that contained a free library, an art school, a technical school, a swimming pool and a museum.

On 15th October 1903, John presented Tunstall’s Urban District Council with a mahogany cabinet that was surmounted by one of his paintings of Queen Victoria.

Designed to house the town’s records, the cabinet was placed in the council chamber in the town hall. There was a compartment between Queen Victoria’s portrait and the drawers at the base where the records were kept.

When the compartment’s doors were opened a glass display panel was revealed which contained photographs of former chief bailiffs, clerks and surveyors. During the presentation ceremony, a bronze portrait bust of John was unveiled in the council chamber and he was given an illuminated address thanking him for his services to the town.

Thanking the council for its gift, John who was 66 years old, said: “I know well that day by day I come nearer to a time when I shall be forever absent from the council chamber and the streets. Think what it means to me, this surprising tribute of yours, that I shall not be forgotten: that I shall be with you dwelling among my own people in imperishable bronze”.

He died two years later. The bronze bust disappeared a long time ago. So far all attempts to trace it have failed.

Copyright Betty Cooper – The Phoenix Trust 2010

 

Focus on Burslem: John Ward (1781-1871)

St. Paul's Church, Burslem (640x409)John Ward, the author of “The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent” published in 1843, was born at Slawston in Leicestershire on June 22nd, 1781.

John who became one of North Staffordshire’s leading lawyers served his articles with an attorney in Cheadle.

Qualifying in 1808, he moved to Burslem and set up his own practice.

At the time, Britain and her allies were at war with France. Napoleon’s army had defeated the Prussians. English troops, commanded by the Duke of Wellington, were fighting a rearguard action in Portugal and John joined the Longport Volunteers, a unit formed to help defend The Potteries if the French invaded.

In 1811, John married Anne Rice from Ashby-de-la-Zouch. They had one son, William, who died of pleurisy in 1847.

An able lawyer, he quickly established an extensive practice and acted for leading industrialists and large landowners including Admiral Smith Child and his grandson Sir Smith Child. Like all successful lawyers, John made enemies. Burslem pottery manufacturer Enoch Wood accused him of professional misconduct. John sued for defamation and Wood was ordered to pay him £100 damages.

A devout Christian, John was churchwarden at St. Paul’s in Dalehall, a church he helped to build. Erected on land given by William Adams, the church was consecrated by Henry Ryder, the Bishop of Lichfield, on January 19th, 1831. Costing £2,000 the medieval Perpendicular style Hollington stone building was designed by London architect Lewis Vulliamy who also built Christ Church, Cobridge.

The Reform Act 1832 made Stoke-upon-Trent a Parliamentary Borough giving it two Members of Parliament. Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Longton and Fenton were included in the constituency.

In 1837, local historian Simeon Shaw, using John’s archives, began writing “The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent” which he hoped to publish in monthly instalments.

Rewritten and edited by John, the first eight parts were printed under Shaw’s name. A financial dispute arose between Shaw and his publishers. They refused to publish any more instalments until John agreed to take over the series and complete the work. He wrote the last 12 parts, and all the instalments were made into a book called “The Borough of Stoke-upon-Trent”. John was acknowledged as the author, but all profits from its sales were given to Shaw.

Politically a Conservative, John was one of Burslem’s improvement commissioners who were responsible for providing street lighting and policing. The town’s market trustees made him their clerk. He arranged for them to buy land in the town centre where they erected a meat market. Opened on October 1st, 1836 the market hall was a Romanesque-style stone building designed by architect Samuel Ledward.

Large-scale riots took place in Staffordshire during August 1842. Armed troops were used to maintain law and order. Men and women who had been arrested were taken to Stafford Gaol. The Crown employed John to help prosecute them. They were tried by Special Commissioners, who were High Court judges, sitting at Stafford.

John remained in practice until he died at his home, Furlong House in Burslem, on June 3rd, 1870. He was 89 years old. His funeral took place at St. Paul’s, Dalehall and he was buried in the churchyard.

Copyright Betty Cooper – The Phoenix Trust, September 2010

When our roads were the worst in Europe

Tunstall Court Leet

An Artist’s Impression of the Courthouse in Tunstall

During the Middle Ages, the Hundred Courts and the Court Leets were responsible for repairing roads and bridges.

When feudalism ended in the 16th century, the duty to maintain highways was taken from the courts and given to local parishes.

In 1555, a Statute for Mending Highways ordered parishioners to elect two honest men to serve as highway surveyors. The surveyors, who were unpaid, held office for a year. They were usually small farmers, local traders or innkeepers who knew nothing about road making or bridge building.

A few years later, Parliament gave the surveyors authority to collect stones and dig for gravel on land adjacent to the highway provided that the holes they dug were filled in afterwards.

Surveyors who forgot to fill the holes were prosecuted. During 1667, two highway surveyors, Joseph Delves and Thomas Ratcliffe, who had failed to fill a hole they had dug at Chell were brought before Tunstall Court Leet and told to fill it in before the court’s next sitting or pay a penalty of five shillings.

The territory over which Tunstall Court Leet had criminal, civil and administrative jurisdiction covered parts of the parishes of Wolstanton and Stoke-upon-Trent.

Neither parish accepted responsibility for highway maintenance in areas that came under the court’s jurisdiction. In 1624, when the longbridge, which carried the road from Burslem to Newcastle-under-Lyme over the Fowlea Brook at Longport, needed repairing the Court Leet asked the County Quarter Sessions for financial help. Quarter Sessions gave a grant of £20 towards the cost. A few years later, in 1636 the Court Leet ordered the inhabitants of Sneyd and Tunstall to repair the road between Little Chell and Furlong Road or pay a forfeit of ten shillings each.

Although the Statute of Labour passed in 1586 compelled householders, cottagers and labourers living in a parish to spend six days a year repairing the roads, by the end of the 17th century England’s roads were the worst in Europe.

Like most roads throughout the country, those in North Staffordshire were deep rutted, waterlogged lanes. A new system of maintenance was needed, and turnpike trusts were created.

Turnpike trusts were commercial enterprises. They repaired stretches of road and charged travellers fees which were called tolls. The first road to be turnpiked in Staffordshire was an eight-mile stretch of the London to Carlisle road between Tittensor and Talke.

Copyright David Martin – The Phoenix Trust 2013

Note: The courthouse which was demolished in the latter part of the 19th century stood in Oldcourt Street.

PH/DM

Education in The Potteries during the 1920s

Orme_Girls_School

THE ORME GIRLS’ SCHOOL

During the early 1920s, the type of school a child attended depended on its parents’ social status.

Middle-class children, whose parents could afford to pay school fees, were sent to secondary schools like Newcastle High School, the Orme Girls’ School and Hanley High School where they received an academic education.

Except for a few scholarship boys and girls attending secondary schools, working-class children went to elementary schools and left to start work at 14.

When the First World War ended in 1918, the Labour Party demanded educational reform and called on the government to give all children a secondary education.

In 1926, the Hadow Report recommended replacing elementary schools with primary schools and selected entry secondary schools – grammar and secondary modern. The report was accepted by the government and local education authorities in North Staffordshire made plans to reorganise their schools.

Stoke-on-Trent’s three secondary schools, Hanley High School, Longton High School and Tunstall High School for Girls became grammar schools. Parents whose children attended these schools still had to pay school fees although a few free places were given to working-class children who had passed the eleven plus.

Reorganisation started in Tunstall during 1929. Tunstall High School for Girls left the Jubilee Building and moved into purpose-built premises at Brownhills. Existing school buildings in Forster Street, High Street and Summerbank Road were modernised or enlarged. Three secondary modern schools were created and Forster Street, where new classrooms and a hall were constructed, became a primary school.

By 1932 all the local authority’s schools in The Potteries had been reorganised. Influenced by the public schools, the grammar schools and the secondary modern schools organised their pupils into houses. House points were awarded for pupils’ academic and sporting achievements. School societies were encouraged and senior pupils who were made prefects helped to maintain discipline.

Although class teaching, where a teacher had a class for a year and taught every subject, was retained in primary schools, it was replaced in secondary modern schools by subject teaching. New teachers had to specialise in one or two subjects, and those who had taught in the elementary schools were given in-service training to help them adapt to the change.

Copyright Betty Cooper – The Phoenix Trust 2013

Photograph Copyright The Phoenix Trust 2012

PH/BC

The Potteries in 1795 (Part Four)

In parts one two and three of our edited extracts from Aikin’s “A Description of the Country From Thirty to Forty Miles Round Manchester” we saw what Goldenhill, Newfield, Greenfield, Tunstall, Longport, Burslem, Cobridge, Etruria, Hanley and Shelton were like during the last decade of the 18th century. Part Four, the last article in the series describes Stoke, Fenton and Longton in 1795.

STOKE

Stoke is a parish-town with a large, ancient, well-endowed church which has several chapels and churches under it. The town, like most other parts of The Pottery, has improved much since the Trent & Mersey Canal was cut. It contains some handsome buildings and from its closeness to a wharf on the canal is well situated for trade. There are many earthenware manufacturers some of whom own large factories. At this place, a gentleman by the name of Spode used the first steam engine to grind flint. The river Trent passes here, at times with rapidity although the brick arches which carry the canal over the river do not seem to have sustained much damage. J. Whieldon, Esq. has a pleasant rural residence here. A new road has lately been made from Stoke to join the main London Road between Newcastle and Trentham.

FENTON AND LONGTON

Fenton and Longton conclude the pottery beyond Stoke. Longton is much larger than Fenton. Part of Stoke parish it has a church, a Methodist Chapel and meeting houses for dissenters. These towns, particularly Longton, manufacture large quantities of earthenware; but it is said to be with less attention than in the other parts of the pottery, consequently, it is of inferior quality although there are a few factories whose ware is second to none. At Fenton, there is the residence of Charles Smith, Esq. and Sir John Edensor Heathcote lives at Longton Hall.

Some earthenware is also manufactured at Newchapel, Wolstanton, Red Street, Newcastle, Norton and a few other places.

The Potteries in 1795 (Part Four) – Edited by Betty Cooper

The Potteries in 1795 (Part Three)

In the third of our series of edited extracts from Aikin’s “A Description of the Country from Thirty to Forty Miles Round Manchester”, we look at Hanley and Shelton.

HANLEY

No part of the pottery can boast of more respectable manufacturers than Hanley. In point of size it is next to Burslem but built so irregularly that to a person standing in the centre of it the town has the appearance of a moderately sized village. But if the houses had been joined together it would have been a well built major town. Hanley has a good market every Monday. All the produce of the surrounding country is brought here except corn, the public sale of which is not allowed because it is so near to the corn market at Newcastle. All the other markets in the pottery labour under the same restriction for the same reason. However, it is expected that attempts will be made before long to get over this inconvenience as many of the inhabitants here and in other places seem determined to trade as little as possible with Newcastle, on account of some instances of an unaccommodating disposition which has been shown by the later. On the other hand, Newcastle, which was formerly the general market of the Potteries, having, of course, suffered some decline, in consequence of the rapid rise of their markets, has exhibited symptoms of dissatisfaction which has helped to increase the mutual jealousy and discontent between them. Hanley has a recently built and well-furnished church. There are also chapels and meeting houses for dissenters. It is a growing town and an inspiring place.

SHELTON

Shelton is an extensive place and has many large pottery factories including the porcelain or china works of Hollins, Warburton & Co. The china made here is very little, if at all, inferior, especially in colours, to that made in the East Indies. The United Kingdom produces all the various types of stone and clay used in this factory and from the number of years it has been established and the regular increase in demand for its products there is no doubt that the owners will continue to reap the fruits of their enterprise and initiative… The Trent & Mersey Canal passes through Shelton and there is a public wharf. The canal brings raw materials to the potteries and takes the ware made there to towns and villages throughout the country and to the ports for export.

The Potteries in 1795 (Part 3) – Edited by Betty Cooper

To be continued

The Potteries in 1795 (Part Two)

In the second in our series of edited extracts from Dr Aikin’s description of the Potteries in 1795, we look at Burslem, Cobridge and Etruria.

BURSLEM

This is the ancient centre of The Pottery, where doubtless earthenware of one kind or another has been made for many centuries. Doctor Plot, in his History of Staffordshire, written in 1686, makes special mention of the potteries of this place and points them out as being the greatest of their kind… This place has two markets in the week, Monday and Saturday; but the market on Monday is the largest. In the last four or five years, regular fairs where cattle are sold have been established which are well attended. Burslem is a parish, which has a good church, lately enlarged and thoroughly repaired, with a good organ. The late Mr Wesley gained considerable ground here. The Methodists have a chapel, and are very numerous; they have also built chapels in several towns and villages in The Pottery: it is, however, believed that the members of this society are not so numerous now as they were in the lifetime of Mr Wesley. There is also a great variety of other sects in The Pottery: few places have so great a diversity of opinion in respect of religion as this; but the effusions of loyalty hereupon most occasions may be fairly stated to be general, warm, and sincere.

COBRIDGE

Cobridge is a large village where there are factories making earthenware. It lies partly in Burslem parish and partly in Stoke parish.

ETRURIA

Etruria belongs solely to Josiah Wedgwood, Esq. who has a very extensive earthenware manufactory here, a large village and a handsome residence in extensive grounds. In his pottery enterprises, he has most definitely acquired a great fortune with an equal share of reputation. The name of this place was given to it by Mr Wedgwood, after an ancient state in Italy, celebrated for the exquisite design of its pottery, the remaining specimens of which have served greatly to improve the beauty of modern ware. The Trent & Mersey Canal runs through Etruria, which makes it a good manufacturing situation; but the whole belonging to one individual will most likely operate against an increase in the number of factories there.

The Potteries in 1795 (Part Two) – Edited by Betty Cooper 2010

To be continued